Associated Research

Fair Use: Many of the supporting documents offered on the NARCAP website are either copied and posted to the NARCAP website or remotely linked to NARCAP webpages. In many cases they are posted without the authors permission and are considered to be supportive of the information being offered on this website. If any author does not approve of this use of their materials they are encouraged to contact us through this website and we will remove their materials.

UFO Phenomena and the Behavioral Scientist
Dr. Richard F. Haines
A classic by NARCAP Science Chief Dr. Richard Haines, offered online as an authorized
free E-book by NICAP - The National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena. The file is large, please request via email.

"What Okham Really Said"
Dr. Jacques Vallee
A direct and surprising examination of the original perspective of Franciscan monk
William of Okham as it applies to the often-referred to dictum known as "Occam's
Razor" ~ by NARCAP Executive Advisory Committee member Dr. Jacques Vallee.

Unidentified Aerial Phenomena in the UK Air Defence Region (UKMOD)
During a policy review in 1996 into the handling of Unidentified Aerial Phenomena
sighting reports received by the Ministry of Defence, a study was undertaken to
determine the potential value, if any, of such reports to Defence Intelligence. Consistent
with Ministry of Defence policy, the available data was studied principally to ascertain
whether there is any evidence of a threat to the UK, and secondly, should the
opportunity arise, to identify any potential military technologies of interest.

This is a comprehensive document reviewing many aspects of the UAP matter from the
UK Gov perspective. While the conclusions are startling, the document states quite
matter-of-factly "That UAP exist is indisputable.... and probably represent a threat to
safe aviation...".  The document is less clear regarding the cause and mechanism behind
UAP manifestations, offering that these UAP are likely "plasmas" without any substantial
science to support those conclusions.  The simple fact is that UAP are unidentified
phenomena that remain unidentified after examination by those most qualified to provide
an explanation.

Inflation Theory Implications for Extraterrestrial Visitation
Deardorff, Haisch, Maccabee and Puthoff,  2005
This study follows up on previous arguments that (1) interstellar travel for advanced
civilizations is not a priori ruled out by physical principles and therefore may be
practicable, and (2) such advanced civilizations may value the search for knowledge from
uncontaminated species more than direct, interspecies communication, thereby accounting
for apparent covertness regarding their presence.

Incommensurability, Orthodoxy and the Physics of High Strangeness: A 6-layer
Model for Anomalous Phenomena

Dr. Jacques Vallee and Eric Davis
The current SETI paradigm and its “assumption of mediocrity” place restrictions on
forms of non-human intelligence that may be researched. A similar bias exists in the
ufologists’ often-stated hypothesis that UAP, if real, must represent space visitors.
Observing that both models are biased by anthropomorphism, the authors attempt to
clarify the issues surrounding “high strangeness” observations by distinguishing six layers
of information that can be derived from UAP events, namely (1) physical manifestations,
(2) anti-physical effects, (3) psychological factors, (4) physiological factors, (5) psychic
effects and (6) cultural effects. In a further step they propose a framework for scientific
analysis of unidentified aerial phenomena that takes into account the incommensurability

Why Some Pilots and Air Traffic Controllers Don't See UAP.
NARCAP National Technical Specialist, Jim McClenahen, a retired air traffic control
specialist, offers an air traffic controller's perspective on a UAP report.

The COMETA Report Part 1

The COMETA Report Part 2
The COMETA Report is a unique document prepared by a group of current and former
French military officers, government officials and defense specialists to address the issue
of unidentified aerial phenomena including UFO.

While NARCAP refers the reader to the authors with respect to the overall motives and
conclusions of the report, this document is particularly relevent to the NARCAP mission
with respect to the emphasis on aviation reports involving aviation related encounters
with unidentified phenomena. The reader is encouraged to pay particular attention to the
aviation related data and statistics, much of it compiled through the efforts of  NARCAP
Advisor Dominique Weinstein and CNES-SEPRA Director JJ Valesco.

UFO Critique: UFOs, Social Intelligence, and the Condon Committee
Diana Palmer Hoyt, April 2000

Science in Default: Twenty Two Years of Inadequate UFO Investigations
James E. McDonald, Ph.D. Professor of Atmospheric Science, University of Arizona,
Tuscon, Arizona, 134th meeting of The American Society for the December 1969

Why Don't Pilots See UFOs?
James E. McDonald, Ph.D. Professor of Atmospheric Science, University of Arizona,
Tuscon, Arizona, presented to the House Subcommittee on Science and Aeronautics,
1968 Symposium on UFOs

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics: UFO Subcommittee Sample Case

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Statement on UFOs
AIAA UFO Subcommittee, Astronautics and Aeronautics, December 1968, p. 12

Lightning Phenomena, Sprites, Blue Jets and Elves:

Sprites, Blue Jets, and Elves: Optical Evidence of
Energy Transport Across the Stratopause
Matthew J Heavner, Davis D. Sentman, Dana R. Moudry, and Eugene M. Wescott -
Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks - Carl L. Siefring and Jeff S.
Morrill- Naval Research Laboratory - Eric J. Bucsela- Raytheon ITSS

(You may have to cut and paste this URL into the Address line of your browser)

Study explains the mystery of ball lightning
"Led by CSIRO scientist John Lowke, the new theory focuses on how ball lightning
occurs in houses and aeroplanes – and how it can pass through glass. His theory also
proposes that ball lightning is caused when leftover ions (electric energy), which are
very dense, are swept to the ground following a lightning strike."

Plasma Cosmology and Extreme Ball Lightning
Wallace Thornhill,
"Dr. VanDevender does not consider ball lightning as "just entertainment." He has
launched into what he calls "High Risk Research at the Boundary of Denial and
Superstition." His interest focuses on "Extreme Ball Lightning." The term "extreme"
distinguishes it from ordinary ball lightning, which lasts less than 10 seconds and is
benign. ..."

Ball lightning may sometimes be explained as hallucinations
( -- An Australian scientist studying photographs of fireballs, UFO
sightings and a report of a strange green light in the sky suggests some UFOs may be
ball lightning caused by fireball meteors.

Atmospheric Phenomena: Unknown

Earthlights, Anomalous Light Phenomena, etc....

Hessdalen, Norway - Erling Strand and Massimo Teodorani

For continuing information on the research that is taking place at Hessdalen, Norway.

Anomalous Light Phenomena

The joint Norwegian and Italian team undertaking research into Earthlights and related phenomena.

Atmospheric Physics

Probable Role of Plasma Instabilities in Anomalous High Altitude Luminosity
(AHAL) Observed in Meteors and SpaceVehicle Re-entries
By Andrei Yu. Olkhovatov

Aviation: Avionics Systems

TCAS Development and the Federal Role-Part 1

TCAS Development and the Federal Role-Part 2

Operation of TCASII in Level-Bust Encounters
John Law, ACAS Programme Manager, EuroControl
8/9 October 2002

Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS II)
Australian Civil Aviation Authority, 2002

Potential Co-operations Between TCAS and the ASAS
An Abeloos, Max Mulder, Rene van Paassen, Deft University, Netherlands
Eric Hoffman, EuroControl Experimental Center

Aviation: Cockpit Resource Management

CAP720 - Flight Crew Training: Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) and
Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT)
(previously ICAO Digest 2) Civil Aviation Authority of the United Kingdom, Safety
Regulation Group:

The Evolution of Crew Resource Management Training in Commercial Aviation
by Robert L. Helmriech, Ashliegh C. Merrit, and John A. Wilhelm, Department of
Psychology, Aerospace Crew Research Project, University of Texas at Austin

Aviation: Electromagnetic Interference

A Study of Occurrence Rates of Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) to Aircraft With a
Focus on HIRF (External) High Intensity Radiated Fields
by Martin L. Shooman, Polytechnic University, Farmingdale, New York dates April
1994 (Grant NAG1-1272). NASA Contractor Report

An Investigation of EME as a Potential Cause of Fuel Tank Ignition
Jay J. Ely, Truong X Nguyen, Kenneth L. Dudley, Stephen A. Scearce, Fred Beck,
Monohar D. Dashpande and C. R. Cockrell; NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton,

Investigation of Mechanisms of Potential Aircraft Fuel Tank Vent Fires and
Explosions Caused by Atmospheric Electricity
by M e l v i n  G e r s t e i n

Electronic Systems Failures and Anomalies Attributed to Electromagnetic
R.D. Leach and M.B. Alexander, Editor, NASA Reference Publication 1374

Disruptive Effects of Electromagnetic Interference on Communication and
Electronic Systems
James Burrel, School of Information Technology and Engineering, George Mason

The Interaction of Lightning with Airborne Vehicles
M.A. Uman, V.A. Rakov, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering,
University of Florida, Gainseville, FL 32611, USA as it appeared in: Progress in
Aerospace Sciences 39 (2003) 61-81

Protection of Aircraft Fuel Systems Against Fuel Vapor Ignition Due to Lightning
Lightning Task Group of EEHWG, 22July 1995

Electromagnetic Interference with Aircraft Systems: why worry?
Peter B. Ladkin with colleagues, 11 July 1997, modified 20 October 1997

ASRS Database Report Set: Passenger Electronic Devices
A sampling of reports to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) referencing
incidents involving passenger electronic devices.

Aviation: Human Factors

Analysis of Mid-Air Collisions in Civil Aviation
Narinder Taneja and Douglas A. Wiegmann University of Illinois at Urbana-
Champaign, Aviation Human Factors Division Savoy, Illinois

Human Factors in Fatal Aircraft Accidents
Department of Transport and Regional Development, Bureau of Air Safety
Investigation, April 1996

Loss of Separation - Risk Assessment
IBC "Aviation Safety Management" London 20-21 May 1999
Edward Smith, Robin Pitbaldo (DNV), Roland Rawlings, Mike Perry (EuroControl)

Human Factors Analysis and Classification Sytem(HFACS) A Human Error
Approach to Accident Investigation
Shappel and Weigmann

Aviation: Visual Illusions

The Eye and Night Vision
(This article has been adapted from the excellent USAF Special Report, AL-SR-1992-
0002, "Night Vision Manual for the Flight Surgeon", written by Robert E. Miller II,
Col, USAF, (RET) and Thomas J. Tredici, Col, USAF, (RET)) and appears on the
website of the American Optometric Association:

Perceptual Disorders

United States Naval Flight Surgeon's Manual: Third Edition 1991: Chapter 9: Ophthalmology, Naval Aerospace
Medical Institute